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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

A layman approach to adopt COVID-19 appropriate behaviour and vaccination: A narrative review


1 Department of Chemistry, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Chemistry, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Environmental Protection Training and Research Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 Department of Civil, B. V. Raju Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Date of Submission01-Dec-2021
Date of Decision20-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance31-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication14-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Kolli Balakrishna
Department of Chemistry, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_12_21

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  Abstract 


Everyone is aware of the continuing global health catastrophe caused by the advent of a new virus that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). A virus is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is the cause of the viral disease COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first discovered in bats in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and then spread to humans via an unknown intermediary host (animal). The virus can be passed directly from an infected person to a healthy person nearby or indirectly by contact with infected droplets. Fever, sore throat, cough, exhaustion, and dyspnea are the most common symptoms of the condition, while many patients remain asymptomatic. In most cases, the situation is moderate, but it can progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multi-organ failure. Although the transmission rate is high, the fatality rate is 2–3%. The diagnostic method of the disease uses some molecular tests of the samples from an infected person. The preventive measures include using mask, maintaining social distance, home quarantine, and frequent handwashing with soap and sanitizer with a high percentage of alcohol. This review may assist each individual in raising awareness about COVID-19 and make them responsible for battling the pandemic on a personal level to maintain a healthy environment. To control the spreading of the virus, vaccination and the availability of vaccines play an important role. By the quest, various vaccines are in the market and some more are in the trial stage. Hence, different available vaccines are also highlighted. The present review discusses the details regarding the coronavirus's origin, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination details.

Keywords: Conronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine


How to cite this article:
Randhi UD, Balakrishna K, Tammina BP, Jangal S, Chandu KB. A layman approach to adopt COVID-19 appropriate behaviour and vaccination: A narrative review. Asian J Pharm Res Health Care 2022;14:1-6

How to cite this URL:
Randhi UD, Balakrishna K, Tammina BP, Jangal S, Chandu KB. A layman approach to adopt COVID-19 appropriate behaviour and vaccination: A narrative review. Asian J Pharm Res Health Care [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 25];14:1-6. Available from: http://www.ajprhc.com/text.asp?2022/14/1/1/339409




  Introduction Top


In Wuhan, China's capital city, the ongoing pandemic coronavirus infection coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is infecting the global population in December 2019.[1],[2] It was initially thought to be viral pneumonia, but it was later identified as new coronavirus pneumonia by the Chinese government's disease control and prevention agency. The International Committee on Virus Taxonomy dubbed it as SARS-CoV-2 in February 2020, and the World Health Organization (WHO) named as COVID-19.[3],[4] Coronaviruses (CoVs) are members of a virus family known as Coronaviridae.[5] In the 1960s, it was first isolated from cold patients. Based on the scientific study of serum and other body fluids, the virus further splits into various types, namely alpha, beta, gamma, and delta coronaviruses.[6] These were identified as enclosed, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with spike-like projections on their surface measuring 80–120 nm in diameter under the microscope.[7],[8]

SARS-CoV-2 is related to the known severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[9],[10] Researchers believed that coronaviruses only affected animals, but the SARS outbreak in 2002 by SERS-CoV changed the assumption.[11],[12] SARS-CoV-2 also exhibits high transmissibility and infectivity compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is assumed to have originated in bats since it shares 95% of its genome sequence with the bat SARS coronavirus (SARSr-CoV-RATG13).[13],[14]

Although the cause was quickly recognized as a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2, our knowledge of this mysterious virus remains limited. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the history, origins, epidemiology and pathogenesis, clinical features and diagnosis, prevention and therapy, and current vaccination status of COVID-19 for an average reader to comprehend the new virus on a primary basis.


  Methodology Top


The coronavirus spread is in a raster fashion throughout the world. In this situation, it is crucial to know its status. It is also essential to communicate to ordinary people about its spread more straightforwardly. Hence, to spread the information to ordinary people more straightforwardly, we have searched various databases like WHO and other related information sources besides studying and understanding the research paper published worldwide. In the coming sections, we have highlighted the coronavirus information starting from its origin to present vaccines availability to make the concept understood by an individual. Expecting it will be a valuable source to various category people, especially to an ordinary man, to control the spreading nature of the virus.


  Past and Present History of Coronaviruses Top


Coronaviruses are viruses that can infect both people and animals. Coronaviruses are responsible for a wide range of respiratory infections in humans starting from cold to other severe.[15],[16] The recent coronavirus causes COVID-19, a coronavirus illness. No one has heard of this new virus or illness before the epidemic. It is currently a universal pandemic that has spread to most of the countries.[17],[18]

Coronaviruses are encapsulated positive-sense RNA viruses with spike-like projections on their surface that range in size from 80 to 120 nm. HKU1, NL63, 229E, and OC43 are four coronaviruses that have spread among humans and cause mild respiratory disease.[19],[20] In the last two decades, animal beta coronaviruses have crossed into people and caused severe illnesses in humans and animals. The first time this happened was in China's Guangdong province in 2002–2003, when a new coronavirus with origins in bats spread to people via palm civet cats as an intermediary host.[21],[22] This virus, known as the SARS-CoV, infected hundreds of people, predominantly in China and Hong Kong, and even took lives of several hundreds of people. Similarly, the MERS-CoV was first appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012, with dromedary camels serving as the intermediate host, infecting 2494 people and killing 858.[23],[24]

The virus was discovered as a coronavirus on January 7, 2020, with more than 95% homology with the bat coronavirus and more than 70% resemblance to the SARS-CoV.[25],[26] The virus was also detected in samples collected from the Huanan seafood market, indicating that it originated there.[27],[28] With some patients not having been exposed to the live animal market, the number of cases continued to rise, indicating that one person to other permission transmission was occurring at a rapid rate and the first mortal case was recorded on January 11, 2020.[29],[30]


  Epidemiology and Pathogenesis Top


Pathogenesis is the study of disease formation, whereas epidemiology studies health-related states and occurrences in specific populations and their distribution as well as risk factors along with causes. COVID-19 can affect anyone of any age.[31],[32] Droplets produced by coughing and sneezing by a sick patient extend the infection.[33] Asymptomatic people can also be infected before they show any symptoms.[34] Disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and others, on the other hand, destroy them in a matter of minutes.[35],[36] Any healthy person can become infected by inhaling microdroplets from an infected person. According to reports, the virus's receptor for entering the respiratory mucosa is angiotensin receptor 2.[37]


  Clinical Symptoms and Diagnosis Top


Most patients infected with the COVID-19 virus will have mild-to-moderate symptoms such as dry cough and fatigue.[38] However, other symptoms including headache, pains, loss of taste or smell, and so on are also observed.[39],[40] Chest pain, breathing difficulties or shortness of breath, and loss of speech or mobility are also common symptoms. Older people and people with chronic medical conditions are more prone to severe illness.[41] SARS-CoV-2 has a minimum incubation period (the time between infection by an infectious agent and the manifestation of the first symptom of the disease) of only 4–5 days.[42] However, while the symptoms may take up to 14 days to manifest, they are more likely to appear within 2–14 days of virus contact.

From a primary action standpoint, diagnosing a COVID-19 case is critical to limiting further transmission in all individuals with confirmed COVID-19 undergoing diagnostic.[43],[44] A suspicious case is defined as a confirmed case with a positive molecular test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), often known as a molecular test, is a diagnostic test that detects viruses in the body.[45],[46] SARS-CoV-2 has DNA and RNA sequences unique and specific to this virus. The SARS-CoV-2 PCR analysis evaluates sequences of the nucleic acid.[47] The test is positive if the same sequence is found in the sample. PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 are typically performed on swab samples collected as of the throat or/and nose.[48],[49] For confirmation, further sensitive and specialized tests such as a chest X-ray and a city scan are employed in addition to the molecular test.[50],[51]


  Prevention and Treatment Top


The prevention measures are necessary at two different levels – for patients and health workers at health care centers and for the general public at the community level. People should wear a surgical mask and follow hygienic practices, especially caretakers.[52],[53] The prevention step toward the caretakers is highly essential as we have witnessed that 21% of health-care workers were affected during the SARS outbreak in 2002.[54] Health-care workers must be protected to maintain a consistent level of treatment and prevent other patients from being infected.[55],[56] Inpatient room surfaces and equipment should be regularly disinfected with prescribed disinfectants like hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite.[57]

At the community level for the general public, people should avoid moving to crowded areas and stop traveling to places where transmission is high. People should follow hygienic practices such as: not using a hand during coughing but instead using tissue papers and avoiding touching eyes, nose, and mouth with an unhygienic hand. People should keep a social space of at least one meter (3 feet) between themselves. Minor symptoms such as cough, headache, and light fever should be self-isolated until they improve. Initially, doctors treated the patients by giving antiviral medications such as ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, and nafamostat.[58],[59] Arbidol, interferons, chloroquine, and plasma from COVID-19 patients are all used as antiviral treatments.[60],[61]


  Vaccination and Vaccines Top


Vaccination is a clear-cut, safe, and effective way to care for living things against infectious diseases before they become infected. Vaccines prevent us from being sick in the first place rather than treating an infection after it has formed. Vaccines tell the immune system to make antibodies.[62],[63] After receiving one or more vaccination doses, we are generally protected against the illness for years. As a result, vaccines are incredibly effective.[64],[65]

In the present COVID-19 case, vaccines are being created at an unprecedented rate. One hundred seventy-three were in various stages of clinical development by mid-January 2021, with 15 in or nearing completion of phase III studies.[66] Inactivated whole virus vaccines, virally vectored vaccines, mRNA and DNA-based vaccines, and protein subunit vaccinations have all been created. The development of new products needs to continue, including single-dose use as well as non-injectable delivery. COVID-19 vaccines are being developed and produced by scientists worldwide, with 21 vaccines already being distributed in countries worldwide.[67] Some of the available COVID-19 vaccines along with the country that developed is shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Names of the vaccines and their developer[70],[71]

Click here to view



  Vaccination Drive Status Top


Vaccines have now been approved for use worldwide, and governments have entered the race to vaccinate their citizens.[68],[69] According to Bloomberg figures, more than 7.58 billion doses had been provided in 184 countries. The most recent figure was around 34.3 million doses each day. Globally, the latest vaccination rate is 34,332,257 doses per day, including 13,712,797 people getting their first shot. At this stage, it will take another 4 months until 75% of the population has received at least one dose. Israel was the first to demonstrate that vaccinations might change the course of COVID-19 infections. By February, more than 84% of those aged 70 and older had got two doses, making the country the world leader in early immunizations. Cases of COVID-19 fell quickly, and dozens of other nations saw a similar pattern of vaccination and recovery. In India, the vaccinations drive launched on January 16, 2021. In India totally, 118 crore (29.4%) people were vaccinated as of November 23, 2021, of which 40.6 crores were fully vaccinated. This vaccination program is continuous and even on public holidays, ensuring all the residents are vaccinated in India. Government of India has provided free immunization doses to all citizens. All health-care employees were vaccinated as part of the vaccination campaign. Frontline employees, citizens over 60, people over 45, and over 18 were all vaccinated under the program. The Government of India purchased all vaccination doses and distributed them to state governments at no cost.


  Current Situation Top


Even though COVID-19-positive cases are under control number, their variants create a problem for humans worldwide.[80] In particular, the delta variant type of coronavirus threatens people by spreading fast even though some people are vaccinated, in either one dose or two doses.[81] Besides all these, a new variant came in to picture recently in South Africa. On the suggestion of WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Virus Evolution, WHO recognized the variety B.1.1.529 as a concern variant, dubbed Omicron, on November 26, 2021. There are several mutations in this variation. The preliminary research suggests that this variation has a higher risk to humans. Furthermore, there may not be any symptoms initially to recognize it.


  Conclusions Top


The pandemic COVID-19 outbreak has affected all age groups and challenged public health infrastructure and the economic and social aspects worldwide. Time will speak about the effect of the virus on humankind. Therefore, efforts should control the ongoing outbreak following the preventive measures with the spread of COVID-19 awareness. In addition, research activities need to be accelerated to have preventative measures (in terms of drug/vaccine) for any possible outbreaks. Interestingly, things become online, starting from learning new things to telemedicine. However, we need to see the complications aroused due to the overutilization of electronic things, specifically youngsters. At present, the new variant, Omicron, affected percentage is too low and not spread more. However, it is more potent than other variants, which overcomes the power of the vaccine. Hence, it is an individual to maintain all the suggestible things prescribed by governing bodies to break the corona chain and inhibit the virus's growth.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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