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 Table of Contents  
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 59-63

India's COVID-19 vaccine implication on bangladeshi's health: A systematic research


1 Amity Institute of International Studies, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Amity Humanity Foundation, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission26-Jan-2022
Date of Decision21-Mar-2022
Date of Acceptance30-May-2022
Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Nancy Puri
Amity Institute of International Studies, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_6_22

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  Abstract 


Aim: The aim of this study is to curb the spread of COVID-19, India, has provided the Made-in-India AstraZeneca vaccine to Bangladesh. This research article will try to explain the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine experience among Bangladeshi citizens. Methodology: The article is based on a qualitative research design and the authors have reviewed the related review of literature on the postvaccine experience and the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Results: Through review-based literature, it was found that many Bangladeshi citizens including comorbid patients have not suffered any adverse events from the COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events usually appeared after 12 h and went away within 48 h of vaccination. Most of the Bangladeshi population was satisfied during and after the vaccination program and most of them are recommending the COVID-19 vaccines to others as well. Conclusion: India constantly supplied COVID-19 vaccine assistance to Bangladesh and no adverse events from the vaccine were observed among the people.

Keywords: Bangladesh, COVID-19, Covishield, India, public health, vaccine


How to cite this article:
Puri N, Akhouri C R. India's COVID-19 vaccine implication on bangladeshi's health: A systematic research. Asian J Pharm Res Health Care 2022;14:59-63

How to cite this URL:
Puri N, Akhouri C R. India's COVID-19 vaccine implication on bangladeshi's health: A systematic research. Asian J Pharm Res Health Care [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 27];14:59-63. Available from: http://www.ajprhc.com/text.asp?2022/14/2/59/351319




  Introduction Top


In December 2019, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan city of China and then spread to all other countries in the world.[1] As a result, many people were infected, and many people died.[2] South Asia is not an exceptional case, Bangladesh recorded its first case of COVID-19 on March 8, 2020;[3] and then the COVID-19 pandemic has spread in all parts of the country and in Bangladesh, there are 370 new cases and four new deaths recorded, as of January 1, 2022.[2] Bangladesh had faced the worst phase of the pandemic in June 2021, as the COVID-19 Delta variant was outbroken in the country and this variant is fatal and spreads rapidly.[4] As of the current situation, COVID-19 Delta and Omicron variants continue to ravage the world.

Globally, scientists and researchers are focusing more on producing COVID-19 vaccines for people, as vaccines are an effective tool to kill infectious diseases and to build a long-lasting immune system.[5] According to the WHO, “COVID-19 vaccine prevents 2–3 million deaths per year.”[6] The Government of India had dispatched a total of 2 million Made-in-India vaccines to Bangladesh, as vaccines are the central strategy to curb the spread of COVID-19.[7] Bangladesh started an emergency COVID-19 vaccination program on January 27, 2021, whereas mass vaccination started on February 7, 2021. From January 2021 to April 2021, for emergency purpose, the Oxford‒AstraZeneca vaccine (also known as Covishield) was used by Bangladesh and it is continuing.[8]

In Bangladesh, a total of 117,069,226 vaccine doses have been administered to its citizens. However, more than “9.2 billion doses have been used globally as of January 1, 2022.”[9] Within a short period, the government of Bangladesh has successfully reached its target of vaccinating most of its citizens. Nations can only achieve mass immunity when the general population gets fully vaccinated.[10] Although there are a few people in the community who have not taken a single dose of the vaccine and still, few people have doubts about the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and are not ready to vaccinate themselves.[11]

Experts have opined that in such a large populated country or developing countries it may not achieve mass vaccination results before 2023.[12] Although the pandemic is aggressively spreading globally,[13] it is necessary that people should administer double doses of vaccine as well as booster shots.[14] Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the post-COVID-19 vaccine experience by the Bangladeshi population and its symptoms or its adverse effects on the general population. The result of this present review can highlight the importance of the COVID-19 vaccine and can reduce the hesitancy of vaccines among people. This article has reviewed previous literature and the materials that were related to the research topic were included in the study. Initially, 50 articles were considered; however, some were identified as irrelevant and some were duplicates. As a result, they were dropped from the research, and finally, 25 articles were considered for this research.

Research gap

Based on the review of the literature study, a research gap was identified that no research has been identified on the efficacy of the post-COVID-19 vaccine survey or vaccine administering experience of Bangladesh general populations.

Aim of the study

The article will systematically review the Made-in-India AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine experiences and any adverse events from it, among Bangladesh citizens.

Research questions

  1. What is the COVID-19 vaccine medical assistance provided by India to Bangladesh?
  2. What is the Covishield vaccine experience by the Bangladesh general population?.



  Methodology Top


This research was conducted as a desk study to address the issue analytically. The research article reviews previous related literature as mentioned and provided in the reference list. The current data are obtained from reports, journals, and articles, and a thorough review of relevant literature is applied. The objectives of the article are met using electronic media, web-based articles, and various international, regional, and national sources are used. To further emphasize the problem of the study, tables and figures are also mentioned in the article. This research will mostly focus on elaborating material published in 2020 and 2021 to provide a thorough analysis of the COVID-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca) experienced by the Bangladesh general population, amid the coronavirus crisis. The research article is based on “qualitative analysis.” The study was carried out in a systematic manner using multiple data sets based on social and health-related factors among the general populations of Bangladesh. A flow diagram will explain the phases of a related literature search [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Flow diagram of review

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Inclusion criteria

  • Research articles related to COVID-19
  • National and international reports were included
  • Studies on both gender (male and female)
  • Only qualitative research is applied to conduct the study
  • Only articles written in English were used.


This research will conduct in the following manner:

Section one introduces the topic of the article and Section two explains the methodology used in the article. Section three will explain India as a neighboring country has provided AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines to Bangladesh and will also elaborate AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine experience by Bangladesh's general population and followed by the conclusion.


  Results Top


This qualitative-based study was conducted to explain the COVID-19 vaccine experience by Bangladeshi people, and to fight against the virus. According to the sources from the Ministry of External Affairs, 2021, India granted 2 million COVID-19 vaccines to Bangladesh on January 21, 2021.[15] India had gifted 1.2 million free doses of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine to Bangladesh on March 26, 2021 [Table 1]. In November 2021, Bangladesh had signed a deal with the Serum Institute of India (SII), the world's biggest AstraZeneca vaccine manufacturer. From January 2021 to December 2021, Bangladesh purchased 1.5 million AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines from India. In Bangladesh, more than 160 million people have been administered AstraZeneca vaccine doses to fight against the virus. India has supplied COVID-19 medical assistance to the countries, and it is clear that even in the pandemic phase, India is trying to maintain cordial and peaceful relations with its neighboring countries.
Table 1: Vaccine supply supplies so far (lakhs)


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Bangladeshi people, including both males and females, above the age of 18 years are taking the AstraZeneca vaccine known as Covishield and have reported injection site pain, fever, headache, and fatigue and it went away within 48 h of vaccination. There was not a single anaphylaxis case related to the Covishield COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh [Table 2]. This is not a side effect, but rather a sign of immune response, indicating that the body is constructing defenses against the virus. Bangladeshi citizens are satisfied with the vaccine and are willing to take the second dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.
Table 2: Symptoms after COVID-19 vaccine dose in Bangladesh population


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Table 3: Comorbid patients intended to vaccinate


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Bangladeshi citizens including comorbid patients are satisfied to receive the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine [Table 3]. From the report (ASPI 2021), it has been observed that 67.8% of vaccines are administered to diabetic patients and approximately 69.8% of vaccines are administered to people suffering from hypertension. People who are suffering from other such comorbid diseases have also received the vaccine. Although the fully vaccinated number of Bangladeshi citizens is not complete, as there are other people living in rural areas of Bangladesh who have not taken a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, due to their vaccine hesitancy and that can be a great risk to their health.

Till December 2021, in Bangladesh, approximately 13.2 crores doses have been given to the people, and approximately 4.4 crores of Bangladeshi people have taken both the vaccine doses and are fully vaccinated [Table 4]. The COVID-19 vaccine assistance provided by India to Bangladesh has resulted in a favorable response from Bangladeshi citizens.
Table 4: COVID-19 vaccine dose among Bangladesh people


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  Discussion Top


The results of the analysis or review have allowed the researchers to know the experiences of the COVID-19 vaccine among Bangladeshi people. A study conducted by Sharma J and Varshney SK 2021evaluates that India has manufactured COVID-19 vaccines and supplied them to various developing countries at a very reasonable price. India has started “Vaccine Maitri” a diplomatic mission to supply vaccines (Covaxin and Covishield) to needy countries. From the analytical research, researchers have found that in the world, India is recognized as the mass production center of the COVID-19 vaccine, accounting for 60% of the worldwide vaccine supply. India has supplied 3.3 million doses of vaccines to Bangladesh and recently, Bangladesh has purchased 30 million COVID-19 vaccine doses from the SII. In September 2021, Bangladesh was offered two mobile medical oxygen plants from India to help the country cope with the current pandemic situation.[16] Bangladesh Foreign Minister Dr. AK Abdul Momen said, “India had stood by Bangladesh during the (1971) liberation war and today when the pandemic is rattling the world, India again came with gifts of vaccines.” Moreover, on the other hand, India's Minister for External Affairs Dr. S. Jaishankar had said, “India reaffirms the highest priority of its relations with Bangladesh.”[17]

Through various reports and articles, it is observed that COVID-19 vaccines are safer and provide protection against the virus[18],[19] From this qualitative study, the summary of the findings indicates that most of the Bangladeshi people living in the urban areas and employed in the private sector are likely to receive COVID-19 vaccine. This result supports the position of Abedin et al. 2021, and Paul et al. 2020 they asserted that most of the Bangladeshi citizens had enough knowledge of COVID-19 vaccination and they were five times more satisfied than those who do not have the vaccine knowledge.[20],[21] On the other hand, there are some people living in vulnerable areas in Bangladesh who have not taken a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. From the study of Ngozi 2021, it is evident that people who are living in vulnerable conditions such as in the crowded place or those who are homeless are at a greater risk of contracting with the virus, for such population it becomes difficult to maintain social distancing[22] and further a new mutation of virus may emerge.

The result shows that out of every million people in Bangladesh who have been provided the vaccine dose have experienced a favorable response. The study conducted by Saha P and Gulshan 2021 evaluated that the people who had taken the AstraZeneca vaccine known as Covishield reported injection site pain, fever, headache, and fatigue and which subsided within 48 h of vaccination. There was not a single anaphylaxis case related to the Covishield COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh.[3] The study conducted by Sapkal et al. 2021 reveals that to create immunity against coronavirus, AstraZeneca used a genetically modified common cold virus in its COVID-19 vaccine.[23] Hence, it is necessary to administer the COVID-19 vaccine to people to be safe from the deadly virus.

This study examines public attitudes as well as people's favorable responses to the COVID-19 vaccine in Bangladesh. This research has also explored the COVID-19 medical assistance provided by India to Bangladesh. This study will aid policymakers in developing an effective immunization plan to increase vaccine uptake rates in rural areas to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. It should be noted that the double dose of vaccines and booster shots is the only way to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and acquire herd immunity against the novel coronavirus. This research article has proved the authenticity, safety, and building confidence of the COVID-19 vaccine and highlighted the vaccine experience of Bangladeshi citizens. Therefore, this research article might help to reduce vaccine hesitancy in the world.

Limitations of the study

This research article had explored the experiences, effectiveness, and positive feedback of COVID-19 vaccines, after the dose was administered to the Bangladeshi population. However, there are some limitations in the study due to the spread of the virus it was not possible to conduct a face-to-face survey. Our authors have used the review of the literature study to collect the information. Second, it was difficult to analyze the data due to the frequent changes in facts and figures. Third, due to the frequent mutations of the virus, individuals' opinions on COVID-19 vaccines may change.


  Conclusion Top


This research article has discussed India has initiated to provide “Made-in-India” vaccine and has supplied it to its neighboring countries and to various other nations as well. This research article has discovered the experiences of the Bangladeshi general population after the administering of COVID-19 doses. This article has only discussed the efficacy of AstraZeneca vaccine experiences among the general population of Bangladesh. Other approved COVID-19 vaccines, on the other hand, are also effective and beneficial in the population. This research article might help to educate and inform people about the importance and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and will reduce vaccine hesitancy among the public, worldwide.

For future purposes, the study can open avenues for researchers, policymakers, and scientists to further investigate on the extent and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine, administered in various other countries. Further research is needed to inspect the changes in vaccination intention and its' related determinants, during the pandemic. Moreover, in-depth research is required to understand the common challenges in accepting the newly discovered COVID-19 vaccines in different countries, for the general population. Future research would benefit to explore about the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and the attitudes or behaviors of people toward the vaccines. Although the research article is based on a review of literature, as it was not possible for the authors to conduct a face-to-face survey due to the spread of the virus. Future research is recommended to employ the interview method or mixed-method research involving both qualitative and quantitative approaches among the participants to gather more information on COVID-19 vaccines.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledged the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in the references list of the manuscript. The authors are also grateful to editors/publishers of journals from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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