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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 97-104

Factors of venous thromboembolism among COVID-19 patients

1 Centre for Quality Management of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Department of Pharmacy, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
2 Centre for Quality Management of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Farida Islahudin
Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_13_23

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Context: Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 for better outcomes. Aim: This study aims to explore clinical outcomes and factors affecting VTE among COVID-19 patients. Settings and Design: The study design involved a retrospective cohort study. Study Methods: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a tertiary hospital prescribed subcutaneous (SC) anticoagulants were included. Statistical Analysis Used: Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine factors affecting VTE among subjects. Results: A total of 450 patients were included. Types of anticoagulants include fondaparinux (n = 114, 38.1%), enoxaparin (n = 113, 37.8%), and heparin (n = 72, 24.1%). 423 (94.0%) patients were discharged well, 27 (6.0%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary outcome was the prevalence of VTE, which occurred in 19.3% (n = 87) patients, with 80 (92.0%) reporting DVT and 7 (8.0%) reporting PE. The secondary outcome, which was the average length of hospital stay was 9.9 (±4.7) days. Factors of VTE occurrence were likely in patients not prescribed SC anticoagulants compared to those prescribed with SC anticoagulants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 54.330, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.086, 416.526), treatment with fondaparinux compared to heparin (aOR 2.502, 95% CI: 1.175, 5.327), and less likely in those discharged well compared to patients in the ICU (aOR 0.139, 95% CI: 0.053, 0.361). Conclusions: Careful monitoring is required to reduce VTE risk in COVID-19 patients.

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