• Users Online: 72
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2022
Volume 14 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-58

Online since Monday, March 21, 2022

Accessed 8,531 times.

PDF access policy
Journal allows immediate open access to content in HTML + PDF
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
RSS FeedRSS
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list
REVIEW ARTICLE  

A layman approach to adopt COVID-19 appropriate behaviour and vaccination: A narrative review p. 1
Uma Devi Randhi, Kolli Balakrishna, Benarji Patrudu Tammina, Swaraj Jangal, Koya Bala Chandu
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_12_21  
Everyone is aware of the continuing global health catastrophe caused by the advent of a new virus that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). A virus is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is the cause of the viral disease COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first discovered in bats in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and then spread to humans via an unknown intermediary host (animal). The virus can be passed directly from an infected person to a healthy person nearby or indirectly by contact with infected droplets. Fever, sore throat, cough, exhaustion, and dyspnea are the most common symptoms of the condition, while many patients remain asymptomatic. In most cases, the situation is moderate, but it can progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multi-organ failure. Although the transmission rate is high, the fatality rate is 2–3%. The diagnostic method of the disease uses some molecular tests of the samples from an infected person. The preventive measures include using mask, maintaining social distance, home quarantine, and frequent handwashing with soap and sanitizer with a high percentage of alcohol. This review may assist each individual in raising awareness about COVID-19 and make them responsible for battling the pandemic on a personal level to maintain a healthy environment. To control the spreading of the virus, vaccination and the availability of vaccines play an important role. By the quest, various vaccines are in the market and some more are in the trial stage. Hence, different available vaccines are also highlighted. The present review discusses the details regarding the coronavirus's origin, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination details.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Impact of generic drug user fee act and other initiatives on generic drug approval process in the USA p. 7
Rajender Singh, Swati Singh, Anil Kumar, Giriraj T Kulkarni, Arti R Thakkar
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_7_21  
Introduction: Regulations of the drug approval process either new drug or generic has come a long way. Hatch-Waxman Act was one of the most important milestones in the drug regulations history of the USA, followed by various acts such as the Prescription Drug User Fee Act and Generic Drug User Fee Act (GDUFA). Methods: In this study, various data related to generic drug submission and approval were evaluated and critically reviewed, specifically impact of GDUFA II. Results and Discussion: Although the first 5-year term of GDUFA, i.e., GDUFA I was majorly known for clearing backlog at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), enhancing resources, and putting processes in place, it is the second 5-year term, GDUFA II, which is expected to bring the real benefit to industry in the form of higher-number and faster approvals, including increased first-cycle approvals. Apart from reduction in abbreviated new drug application approval times, more focus has also come on approval of first generic, complex products, increased FDA-Industry meetings to resolve complex matters, and reforms on review of DMFs. Conclusion: GDUFA legislation is credited for giving push to the availability of generic drugs by increased competition and it now helps save more than USD 300 Bn annually for the American healthcare system.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Detection of Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus p. 16
Bajarangi Lal Chaudhary, Dakshina Bisht, Sameer Singh Faujdar
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_14_21  
Background: The testing of heteroresistance vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) by the population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) is tedious and laborious. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of hVISA among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and compare two screening tests: brain heart infusion agar with vancomycin 4 mg/L (BHIV4) and macromethod E-test (MET) with PAP-AUC as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic sensitivity test and detection of MRSA were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. PAP-AUC, BHIV4, and MET were used to detect hVISA. Results: A total of 288 MRSA isolates were tested for hVISA, with 48 (16.66%) being detected by PAP-AUC. With PAP-AUC, BHIV4's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 70.83%, 96.66%, 80.95%, and 94.3%, respectively. The majority of hVISA isolates were found in the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration range 1–2 mg/L. Conclusions: hVISA was found to be 16.6% in this investigation. When compared to MET, BHIV4 had a higher sensitivity, and teicoplanin and linezolid were found to be the most effective drug against hVISA.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Distribution of IcaA and IcaB Genes in Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus p. 21
Nitisha Malik, Dakshina Bisht, Juhi Aggarwal, Ashutosh Rawat
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_16_21  
Background: Biofilm-producing methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains may reduce the penetration rate of antibiotics which leads to treatment failure; therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the presence of icaA and icaB biofilm-producing genes in clinically isolated MRSA strains. Materials and Methods: All pus samples received in the microbiology laboratory were processed as per the standard microbiological procedure for the isolation of S. aureus. Detection of MRSA is done by the cefoxitin disc diffusion method. Phenotypic detection of biofilm in all MRSA strains was accessed by tissue culture plate (TCP) method and polymerase chain reaction as genotypic method was used for detection of icaA and icaB genes. Results: A total of 222 S. aureus were isolated from pus specimens. Out of these, 127 isolates were MRSA (57%). TCP method demonstrated that 68% of MRSA were biofilm producers, on the other hand, 52 (41%) strains showed the presence of icaA gene, and 39 (31%) strains showed the presence of icaB genes in 127 MRSA strains. Conclusion: The detection of biofilm in S. aureus should be considered as essential for better management of diseases caused by biofilm-producing S. aureus strains.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activity of a novel polyherbal preparation against streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats and its formulation into a tablet dosage form p. 25
K Jyothsna Jayaraju, B Mohammed Ishaq
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_5_21  
Context: Diabetes is estimated to affect 79.4 million individuals in India by 2030. Aim: A polyherbal mixture containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark, Eugenia jambolana (EJ) seed, Vinca rosea (VR) entire plant, and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves was tested for anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective properties in different proportions. Materials and Methods: In normal and diabetic rats, the anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective efficacy was evaluated. Male and female Albino Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were utilized in the experiment. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce diabetes. Group 1 acts as a normal control, Group 2 as a diabetic control, and Group 3 as a standard control, all animals of Group 3 were given Glibenclamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg p. o. Diabetic rats in groups 4–7 and 8–11 were given polyherbal preparations (PHPs) containing a combination of the above-mentioned plants in different proportions at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for dosage optimization and to determine the most efficacious and safe dose. The treatments were administered for a total of 28 days. Blood was drawn on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days to determine diabetic and hepatoprotective indicators such as body weight, blood glucose (BGL) levels, liver glycogen, total protein, urea, creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. On the 28th day of the research, rats were sacrificed, and the pancreas examined for histological results. Results: BGL levels and serum liver enzymes were significantly reduced when a polyherbal mixture including CZ: EJ: VR: GS: 2: 1: 2: 2 at 400 mg/kg was administered. The optimum PHP ratio was then translated into tablet formulations (F1-F9) and tested for quality control characteristics. The weight, hardness, thickness, friability, and disintegration time of polyherbal tablets were all found to be within acceptable pharmacopeial parameters. Formulation F8, which included 20% sodium starch glycolate, had a disintegration time of 291 s. Formulation F8 was further tested for description, hardness, friability, and disintegration time during a 3-month accelerated stability testing. The results of a short-term stability investigation were likewise positive and comparable to the original formulation. Conclusion: As a result, the produced polyherbal formulation F8 may be utilized as a solid dosage form that is stable, patient-friendly, and cost-effective.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Oral health status among type 2 diabetic versus nondiabetic adult population of muradnagar: A cross-sectional comparative study p. 34
Dipshikha Das, Ritu Gupta, Ipseeta Menon, Anubhav Sharma, Vikram Arora, Iram Ahsan
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_1_21  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a rising public health concern in India. It has become one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Aim: This study aimed to assess and correlate oral health status, socioeconomic status (SES), and oral hygiene practices among Type 2 Diabetic and nondiabetic adult population of Muradnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in the Community Health Center of Muradnagar among 250 (Type 2 diabetic) and 250 (nondiabetic) adult study subjects from October 2019 to March 2020. A interview-based questionnaire assessed demographic details, body mass index, and SES of study subjects. The family history, type, and duration of diabetes as well as knowledge on diabetes, its systemic and oral manifestations, and medications were assessed among diabetic study subjects. WHO Oral Health Assessment Questionnaire 2013 was used. Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified and Community Periodontal Index using WHO Oral Health 2013 Criteria were also used. Results: The mean age of diabetic study subjects was found to be 45.81 ± 5.05 years, whereas of nondiabetic study subjects, it was 40.85 ± 7.7 years. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth is statistically higher among diabetics (10.23 ± 4.73) than nondiabetics (5.34 ± 3.316). Periodontal pocket was present among 67.2% of diabetic study subjects with a mean number of teeth affected, with a pocket depth of about 4–5 mm in 4.68 ± 2.94 and 6 mm or more in 3.76 ± 2.83 which was comparatively higher than the nondiabetic study subjects. The prevalence of attachment loss among diabetic study subjects was noted as 28.4%, whereas among nondiabetic study subjects, it was 18%. Conclusion: The study concluded a strong association between diabetes and poor periodontal conditions and leaves an impact on overall oral health status of diabetic study subjects compared to the nondiabetics.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Phenotypic Detection of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus p. 43
Nitisha Malik, Dakshina Bisht, Juhi Aggarwal, Ashutosh Rawat
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_15_21  
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the common pathogens which causes mild-to-severe diseases. Moreover, its ability to produce biofilm along with drug resistance makes it more notorious and difficult to treat; therefore, early biofilm detection can help in better management of diseases caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Materials and Methods: All clinically isolated S. aureus were screened for their antibiotic susceptibility pattern followed by MRSA status by cefoxitin disk-diffusion method. Evaluation of biofilm-producing nature of biofilm was accessed by tissue culture plate (TCP), tube adhesion (TA), and Congo red agar (CRA) methods. Results: Of all S. aureus isolates, 57% had MRSA status. TCP method showed that 68% of MRSA were biofilm producers. TA method showed 55% and CRA method showed 46% biofilm production. Conclusion: Early detection of MRSA and biofilm could be very beneficial to control S. aureus infection. Of all three biofilm detection methods, TCP method was effective in detecting biofilm, followed by TA and CRA methods.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Ophthalmic anthropometry versus spectacle frame measurements: Is spectacle fit in children compromised? p. 48
Samuel Livingstone Kumaran, Shakthi Pradheepa Periakaruppan
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_2_22  
Purpose: Refractive errors among children are on the rise and more children are wearing spectacle correction. Selecting an appropriate frame that conforms to the child's developing facial features is vital for comfortable spectacle wear. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the facial and frame measurements in spectacle-wearing children in southern India. Materials and Methods: This observational study included spectacle-wearing children aged 5–17 years. Participants were enrolled from the Paediatric Outpatient Department of a tertiary care hospital and across various schools in southern India. The facial and frame measurements such as pupillary distance, crest height (CH), bridge projection, apical radius, distance between rims at 10 mm and 15 mm, frontal angle (FA), splay angle, front to bend, head width, temple width (TW), angle of side and downward angle of drop were measured using Rees Fairbanks facial gauge, head and TW caliper and Association of British dispensing opticians frame rule. Results: Hundred and four children participated in the study. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) were observed between all facial and frame measurements such as CH, splay and FAs. Bland–Altman plots indicated large mean differences and wide limits of agreement between facial and frame measurements. Conclusion: Our study shows a large discrepancy between children's facial measurements and corresponding spectacle frame measurements. Many children were wearing reduced version of adult frames. This study highlights the need for dispensing age-appropriate spectacle frames for children. This may have implications for improved spectacle uptake and compliance.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
CASE SERIES Top

Right sided stellate ganglion block before pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic surgeries. Does it balance Hemodynamics? A case series p. 55
Prem Jepina, P Nandhini, S Parthasarathy
DOI:10.4103/ajprhc.ajprhc_10_21  
The laparoscopic technique is currently used for many types of surgery because it is painless, has less nociceptive stimulus from the skin and tissues, has fewer wound complications, and allows for a faster and smoother postoperative recovery. Institution of capnoperitoneum to visualize the viscera inside is the need in these cases. However, capnoperitoneum can cause many side effects including a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is a sympathetic block for the head, neck, chest, and upper limbs. Hence, we hypothesized that blocking the same, especially right-sided, will decrease a sympathetic surge after capnoperitoneum. We conducted three such cases with administration of ultrasound-guided SGB in the right side 10 min before capnoperitoneum and found that there was no surge in hemodynamics. We postulate that right-sided SGB can be added to the armamentarium of countless techniques to blunt the response. We admit that this is a very small primitive report with only three cases. As ultrasound was used in all the cases, the deposition of local anesthetic drug was precise.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta